Anna Mani, an Indian physicist and meteorologist, was born on August 23, 1918, and died on August 16, 2001.Anna Mani

Anna Mani, an Indian physicist and meteorologist, was born on August 23, 1918, and died on August 16, 2001. At the Raman Research Institute, she was an adjunct lecturer. In comparison, working as the Deputy Director General of the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), which she retired from. Anna Mani researched solar radiation, ozone, and wind energy metrics, wrote several articles, and contributed to meteorological instruments.

Early Life

  • Mani was born in Peermade in 1918 in what was once the state of Travancore but is now called Kerala.
  • Her father was a cardamon estate owner and a civil engineer. She was an avid reader and the seventh of eight kids.
  • Local sources claim that when Mani turned eight, she turned down a pair of diamond stud earrings in favor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  • She was deeply impacted by Mahatma Gandhi’s visit to her hometown in 1925.
  • After the visit, Mani dressed in khadi, or homespun cotton, to represent her nationalist views.
  • She had practically finished reading every book at her public library by age 12 and greatly desired to continue her education.

Higher Education

  • Mani attended Presidency College in Chennai (formerly Madras), where he worked for a Bachelor of Science degree in physics and chemistry with honors.
  • She became interested in socialist ideologies during her study, and when she was 22 years old, she was awarded a scholarship to the Indian Institute of Science.
  • Five research publications and a Ph.D. dissertation were produced due to her work on the spectroscopy of diamonds and rubies.
  • Although her dissertation required significant study, she was denied a Ph.D. since she lacked a master’s degree. She did receive a government scholarship for an internship in England, though.
  • She enrolled in the Imperial College London in 1945 when she was 27 and chose to specialize in meteorological instrumentation. She investigated instrument calibration and standardization during that time.

Go back to India

  • In 1948, Mani returned to India three years later and began working for the Indian Meteorological Department.
  • Simple instruments like thermometers were imported before 1947. She assisted the nation in producing its meteorological instruments while she worked at the department, and in 1953 she was promoted to lead the division.
  • She organized a team of Indian scientists and engineers to complete this complex mission; she had 121 guys working for her.
  • The scientists began fabricating approximately 100 weather devices after standardizing the blueprints. Mani built up a network of stations around India to measure solar radiation since he was particularly interested in solar energy.
  • Her team first used imported machinery, but she rapidly invented and produced a variety of radiation instruments.

Inaccurate measurements are worse than none at all.

  • The scientist thought that wrong measurements were worse than no measurements.
  • She was adamant about thorough planning and precise calibration. She began her studies on monitoring atmospheric ozone in 1960.
  • “Meteorological measurements have no meaning unless instruments are properly designed and built, accurately calibrated, and correctly exposed and read,” she told the UN.
  • She established a meteorological observatory and created a device to measure atmospheric ozone. She joined the International Ozone Commission as well.
  • In 1976, Mani left as the Indian Meteorological Department’s deputy director-general. She also had posts with the World Meteorological Organisation of the UN, and in 1987 she was awarded the INSA K. R. Ramanathan Medal.
  • In response to a question regarding guidance for aspiring scientists, she responded, “We have just one life. To appreciate and enjoy your work, you must first prepare for it, use all your talents, and take full advantage of being outside and in nature.
  • She founded a business in the 1980s that specialized in accurate sensors for measuring solar radiation and wind speed.
  • Two books she wrote on solar radiation have become standard references for scientists and engineers.
  • Mani suffered a stroke in 1994 that rendered her paralyzed. At 83, she passed away on August 16, 2001.

What is Anna Mani most famous for?

Mani was a creative scientist honored for her work on renewable energy research and contributions to India’s weather forecasts. On August 23, Anna Mani, a scientist, and businesswoman from India, would have turned 104.

What created Anna Mani?

She created the ozonesonde, a device that measures atmospheric ozone. The Thumba rocket launch facility also has a meteorological observatory she built.

Anna Mani’s Family

She was born in 1918, the seventh of her family’s eight kids. The father of Anna Mani was a well-known civil engineer who owned massive cardamom estates. The father was an agnostic his entire life, even though the family belonged to the ancient Syrian Christian church. The Mani family was a typical upper-class professional family where the sons were prepared for successful jobs from an early age while the daughters were ready for marriage. Anna Mani, however, was not having it. According to Sur’s article, her early years were immersed in books.

The Weather Woman Of India, Anna Mani

The Indian Weather Woman In 1939, Anna Mani earned a B.Sc. with honors in Physics and Chemistry from Chennai. After graduating, she worked closely with Professor CV Raman to research the optical characteristics of diamonds and rubies. Anna Mani also wrote roughly five research papers around that period, but because Mani didn’t have a master’s in physics, her work wasn’t acknowledged or awarded a Ph.D. She moved to Britain in 1945 to complete the necessary coursework for her master’s degree, demonstrating her abilities again.

However, she discovered her passion for learning about meteorological instruments at this point and enrolled in the course at Imperial College, London. When she returned to India in 1948, she enrolled at Pune’s Meteorological Department. She published a large number of studies on meteorological instrumentation in her position. These efforts are acknowledged to have laid the groundwork for the nation’s ability to provide accurate forecasts and fully use its renewable energy resources in the years to come.

Anna Mani Death Cause

Mani had a stroke in 1994, and on August 16, 2000, he passed away, just one week before her 83rd birthday in Thiruvananthapuram.


In this article, Anna Mani was discussed. She’s referred to as an Indian weatherwoman. The Mani family was a typical upper-class professional family where the daughters were readied for marriage, and the sons were prepared from a young age for successful careers. But Anna Mani was having none of it. According to Sur’s report, she was heavily immersed in books during her formative years. Anna Mani has done research, written multiple articles, and contributed to the field of meteorological instruments in solar radiation, ozone, and wind energy metrics.


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